As you create arguments and attempt to persuade others through research papers and conversations with others, you should avoid using logical fallacies, or arguments that are fundamentally flawed in reasoning. According to the video presented above by the Mometrix YouTube channel, below are the "top ten" logical fallacies.
1. Circular reasoning "is when the argument is restated rather than proven" and not further supported.
2. Hasty generalization "is when someone makes a sweeping statement without considering all of the facts."
3. Slippery slope "is a conclusion based on the premise that one small step will lead to a chain of events resulting in some significant event, which is usually negative."
4. Straw man "is a technique where someone distorts an opponent's claim so that it is easier to refute, or where someone tries to refute a point someone made by giving a rebuttal to a point they did not make."
5. Ad Hominem " is an attack on a person’s character or personal attributes in order to discredit their argument."
6. False dichotomy "occurs when an argument presents two points while disregarding or ignoring others in order to narrow the argument in one person’s favor. This is also known as an “either/or” fallacy."
7. Appeal to emotion "is when a writer or speaker uses emotion-based language to try to persuade the reader or listener of a certain belief or position."
8. Equivocation "is when an argument is presented in an ambiguous, double-sided way, making the argument misleading."
9. Bandwagon appeal "is an appeal that presents the thoughts of a group of people in order to persuade someone to think the same way."
10. False analogy " also known as a weak analogy, is when two things that are unalike are being compared based on a trivial similarity in order to prove a point."
Watch the video for more details and examples. Be sure to craft your arguments carefully and search the MCTC Library databases for credible sources of information and data!
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